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3. history

    The ephemeral port is supposed to be randomly generated for every DNS query and unknown to an off-path attacker. However, once the port number is leaked through a side channel, an attacker can then spoof legitimate-looking DNS responses with the correct port number that contain malicious records and have them accepted (e.g., the malicious record can say chase.com maps to an IP address owned by an attacker).

    The reason that the port number can be leaked is that the off-path attacker can actively probe different ports to see which one is the correct one, i.e., through ICMP messages that are essentially network diagnostic messages which have unexpected effects in Linux (which is the key discovery of our work this year). Our observation is that ICMP messages can embed UDP packets, indicating a prior UDP packet had an error (e.g., destination unreachable).

    We can actually guess the ephemeral port in the embedded UDP packet and package it in an ICMP probe to a DNS resolver. If the guessed port is correct, it causes some global resource in the Linux kernel to change, which can be indirectly observed. This is how the attacker can infer which ephemeral port is used.


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Moin2Qmail: DNS/毒盛/2021/UCR/letter (last edited 2021-11-19 03:53:44 by ToshinoriMaeno)